From the Negotiation Technology I use planning daily – and effectively.
Before every negotiation I determine our minimum and maximum outcome. What is the absolute minimum, below which the cooperation will not make sense for us, and the maximum beyond which it would not make sense for the other party.
Negotiations may take an unexpected turn. We use our own sign system in our negotiations team: when the lead negotiator decides to change direction, then the other members do not get confused, but understand instantly and go along with the ride.